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Vol. 9, Number 3, September 2012

Portfolio Risk and Dependence Modeling: Application of Factor and Copula Models
Arsalan Azamighaimasi
Wuhan University of Technology, China
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
We consider portfolio credit risk modeling with a focus on two approaches, the factor model, and the copula model. While other models have received greater scrutiny, both factor and cupola models have received little attention although these are appropriate for rating-based portfolio risk analysis. We review the two models with emphasis on the joint default probability. The copula function describes the dependence structure of a multivariate random variable. In this paper, it is used as a practical to simulation of generate portfolio with different copula, we only use Gaussian and t-copula case. And we generate portfolio default distributions and study the sensitivity of commonly used risk measures with respect to the approach in modeling the dependence structure of the portfolio.
Keywords: Gaussian copula, factor model, copula model
JEL Classification: C15, C38

Bank Owned Life Insurance: A Critical Examination of Banking Strategy
Leyuan You and Krishnan Dandapani
Texas State University and Florida International University, United States of America
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
This paper is an investigation of a rampant insurance practice in the US banking sector, namely the permitted practice of employer-paid insurance policy. Under this policy, employee’s life policy paid for by the employer, pays large sums as policy benefits to the employer not to the employee’s family. Employers suggest that taking insurance covers the possible monetary loss value of an employee departing the firm, and hence the benefit is quite permissible, kosher. Our findings show its widespread occurrence in beefing up the earnings and even the capital base of the US banks. It calls into question if this practice, though legal, is socially responsible since an employee with such employer-paid policy would be deprived of tax deduction for his own self-paid policy cover, in most instances. Banking sector’s prevalent use of this practice to cover even low-paid workers such as janitors brings into focus the ethics of this practice.
Keywords: Bank owned life insurance, legal practice, ethics in finance
JEL Classification: G21

Does Corporate Governance Matter in Iran?
Saeed Ghorbani and Seyed Tabaie Zavareh
University of Economic Sciences, Iran
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
In this paper, we construct a corporate governance Index (G-index) based on 13 attributes, which are associated with good and bad governance to investigate the impact of corporate governance on a firm’s stock return. After correlating each of the governance attributes of 141 Tehran Stock Exchange listed companies with their performance separately over a period of six years, we find the direction of each attribute’s correlation. After that, we compute the G-index by aggregating the individual attributes and converting each firm’s scores on attribute into the same scale. Finally, these scores are summed up by subtracting negatively correlated attributes from positively correlated attributes for each firm. We find a significantly high correlation between the firm’s performance and firm’s G-index. In the next step, we made three governance-sorted portfolios-from low to high governance-which we use to evaluate stock returns. We find better-governed portfolios significantly outperformed the poorly governed portfolios. We find that corporate governance score really matters in since the results show statistically significant relationship between the qualities of the corporate governance as measured by our G-index and firm’s stock return.
Keywords: Corporate governance, corporate governance index, performance, return
JEL Classification: G34, G32, G11

Determinants of Off-Balance Sheet Business in the Case of GCC Banking Sectors
Mohammad Elian
Gulf University for Science and Technology, Kuwait
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
This paper identifies the association between off balance sheet businesses and a number of determinants identified for the banking sectors of the Gulf Cooperation Council countries. The Fixed Effects Least Squares Dummy Variable Model is used to identify the determinants for a large sample of 64 banks over a recent fifteen-year period. The results reveal that bank-specific variables have important roles in influencing off balance businesses. As for the regulatory variable, capital items are less important, which is contrary to the long-held market discipline hypothesis, under which secure banks are predisposed to engage in more off balance businesses. The macroeconomic variable reveals that higher real GDP growth does not necessarily cause an increase in the off balance activities. However, its positive impact indicates that the off balance business actions follow business cycles, and the overall growth of economy. Prudential regulators, as a policy matter, need to consider region-wide implications of these findings. This is important given the fact that regulating how off balance business is conducted in the region would influence costs and the scope of banks, hence also the monetary policy.
Keywords: Off-balance sheet, regulatory pressure, macroeconomic conditions, GCC.
JEL Classification: C33, F65, G21

Performance of China-Owned Banks in Hong Kong
Xiaoxi Zhang and Kevin Daly
University of Western Sydney, Australia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
This paper reports results on the performance of mainland China-owned banks operating in Hong Kong and compares them Hong Kong (SAR) owned banks and Foreign owned banks. In general, the test model performs well under diagnostic tests on variables such as net interest margin, non-interest expense, impaired loans ratio, equity multiplier and ownership structures. Profitability, as measured by return on assets and return on equity for Chinese owned banks increased over the period 2004-2011. Chinese owned banks recorded increased performance in terms of net interest margin and equity multiplier but decreased with respect to non-interest expense and impaired loans ratio. Banks having a license also appears to be a major contributor to banks profitability across HKSAR. Compared to Hong Kong based foreign banks and local Hong Kong banks, we found that in general the mainland China banks tend to perform poorly across a number of key banking performance indicators.
Keywords: Bank performance, China’s financial outward investment, Chinese banks in Hong Kong
JEL Classification: G21, F21, F23

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